3D-Drucklabor

3D printing lab

The 3D printing lab serves the education of students in 3D printing of plastic materials and its dedicated process chain such as the 3D scanning method. The actual research will be transferred into the teaching content to enable a basic tutorial related to modern principles. The most widely used technique here is the fused filament fabrication method, which is based on the coordinated plasticization of polymer wires. For this, we have four printers (Ultimaker 2+) with their allocated computer storage. All the computers are equipped with actual design and slicer software. The preceding process chain of plastic extrusion can be presented with a common plastic extruder and material mixing experiments can be performed. Conventional and high-tech materials can be processed.

Because of the advantages and disadvantages of each 3D printing technique, there is also stereolithography and selective laser sintering processes available. On the one hand, it is possible to discuss valuable surfaces in Form2, however on the other hand, plastic powder handling and its build-up process will be discussed with a Sharebot Snowwhite printer.

Process data can be generated by designing or 3D scanning of objects. There is computer aided design software and the availabiloty of topological optimization. Furthermore, it is possible to import and edit scanning data. For the 3D scanning method, here are 4 different techniques each with specific advantages and disadvantages.

For students:

The lab and the related infrastructure can be used for student projects or final assignments providing the sufficiant knowledge of the related process steps. Please participate in the tutorial. Please find the actual and relevant dates in TUCaN or here.

This easy-to-use 3D printer works based on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process. The standard material used in the machine are 3mm thermoplastic filaments from ABS or PLA, in different colors. The 3D CAD file is loaded into the software as a stereolithography format (.stl). After G-code translation, the slices of the 3D model are transferred to the machine for rapid prototyping on a hot plate, layer by layer.

Technical specifications:

  • Usable build area: 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm
  • Positioning accuracy: 0.1 mm
  • Supports up to five stepper drivers (XYZ platform + A/B extruders)
  • Included Arduino MEGA control board
  • Heated build platform and extruder heater

MakerBot Thing-O-Matic

The EVOlizer is a 3D printer based on the fused deposition modeling (FDM). Drives, guides, enclosed housing and an exhaust with activated carbon filter are of superior quality. The used software and controller are free, so it is very flexible. It has two print heads, hence support materials or bicolor models can be printed.

Technical specifications:

  • Printable volume: 270 mm x 210 mm x 210 mm
  • 2 extruders
  • Printing bed heated, made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic with Kapton film
  • Filament diameter: 1.75 mm
  • Nozzle diameter: 0,4 mm
  • Positioning accuracy: 0.05 mm
  • Printing materials: ABS, PLA, PVA, nylon and others

The system 30 from Hyrel is a hybrid 3D printer. In addition to the well-known fused deposition modeling (FDM) it offers printheads for more applications to build 3-dimensional objects. Different types of syringes, some of them are heated, with different nozzle diameters or needles are used as a printing nozzle. In addition, a UV-LED ring for cross-linking immediately after printing and a laser head are available.

  • Printable volume: 200 mm x 200 mm x 200 mm
  • 4 printheads, which can be used simultaneously
  • Printing bed heated
  • Positioning accuracy: 0.05 mm in X- and Y-, and 0.02 mm in Z-direction
  • Print heads:
    • FDM extruders with a maximum of 250°C and 400°C extruder temperature
    • Various syringes, partially heated up to 150°C, with different nozzles
    • Syringe with UV-LED ring working at 265 nm wavelength
  • Printing materials: ABS, PLA, PVA, soluble and meltable plastics, silicone, putty, clay, biomaterials and others

The Ultimaker 2+ printer from Ultimaker B.V. is a printer from the field of fused layers (FDM/FFF). It can process plastic filaments with a diameter of 3 mm layer by layer with nozzle diameters from 0,25 mm to 0,8 mm. Temperatures range from 180 °C to 260 °C.

Technical specifications:

  • printing volume: 493 mm x 342 mm x 588 mm
  • filament diameter: 3 mm
  • nozzle diameter: 0,25 mm, 0,4 mm, 0,6 mm, 0,8 mm
  • positioning resolution: 12,5 µm in XY, 5 µm in Z
  • heated platform
  • material: ABS, PLA, CPE

The plastic extruder NEXT 1.0 from the manufacturer 3devo is suitable for the production of round plastic wires (English filament) with a diameter of 0.5 to 3 mm. Thickness control and automatic rewinding enable autonomous operation. Thanks to the four heating zones, plastics can be extruded at a precise temperature control up to an extrusion temperature of up to 430 °C.

Materials: Thermoplastics (e.g. ABS, PLA, PA12, PEEK)

  • Cura
  • Slic3er
  • Simplify3D
  • Siemens NX
  • Solidthinking Inspire
  • NetFabb
  • Div. Andere freie Slicer
  • thermoplastics

3D stereolithography

The Formlabs Form2 printer uses stereolithography to create three-dimensional objects. The process is based on the layered photopolymerization of liquid monomers with an UV laser and achieves very high resolutions. The standard materials of the manufacturer are available in transparent and black, as well as flexible material. An open mode allows the use of self-developed materials and mixtures.

Technical specifications:

  • work space: 145 mm x 145 mm x 145 mm
  • FWHM (Laser): 140 µm
  • film thickness: 25-100 µm
  • Preform
  • transparent / black acrylic resin (GPCL02/GPBK02)
  • flexible resin (FLGR02)

selective laser sintering

The SnowWhite from the Italian manufacturer Sharebot is a 3D printer that works on the principle of selective laser sintering. The three-dimensional objects are created by melting plastic powder layer by layer using a CO2 laser. All thermoplastic plastic powders can be processed, which is why it is also possible to test new materials for their suitability. In order to improve the surface quality of the printed components, a sandblasting cabin is also available.

Technical specifications:

  • space: 100mm x 100mm x 100mm
  • resolution: 100 μm lateral; 50 μm vertical
  • Power: 14 Watt CO2- Laser
  • Scanning speed: < 3.500 mm/s
  • heating temperatur: < 190 °C
  • Slic3r with Sharebot configuration
  • PA12 powder (> 300 g)

3D scanning systems

The 3D scanner SLS-3 from HP (formerly DAVID Vision Systems) works according to the structured light method. It has an industrial camera and a conventional projector. The scanner generates several scans, which are then merged in the program. A single scan can capture objects ranging from 60mm to 500mm in size. The resolution is 0.05% of the scan. The data can be exported as OBJ, STL and PLY. It is particularly suitable for high-resolution images of small objects including texture.

Technical spezifications:

  • resolution: 0,05 % of measured size
  • scan area size: 60-500 mm
  • data formats: STL, PLY, OBJ

The Scanify from Fuel3D combines the three manufacturer-specific processes Photometric imaging, Geometric imaging and Optical localization. These are essentially based on epipolar geometry, in which the 3D information can be calculated from two 2D image information. The combination of the three methods results in a high-resolution model. The target distance is 400 mm, so that the scanner is well suited for taking pictures of faces with their texture.

Technical specifications:

  • data formats: STL, PLY, OBJ

The Sense2 from the manufacturer 3D Systems is a hand-held 3D scanner. The minimum scan volume is 200mmx200mmx200mm and it has an accuracy of approx. 1mm. It is particularly suitable for scanning faces, heads or a complete body with their texture. 3D data is processed directly in the software.

Technical specifications:

  • resolution: 1 mm (distance500 mm)
  • min measuring volume: 200 mm x 200 mm x 200 mm
  • max measuring volume: 1800 mm x 1800 mm x 1800 mm
  • data formats: STL, OBJ, PLY, WRL

The 3D scanner SLS-3 from HP (formerly DAVID Vision Systems) works according to the structured light method. It has an industrial camera and a conventional projector. The scanner generates several scans, which are then merged in the program. A single scan can capture objects ranging from 60mm to 500mm in size. The resolution is 0.05% of the scan. The data can be exported as OBJ, STL and PLY. It is particularly suitable for high-resolution images of small objects including texture.

Technical specifications:

  • resolution: 224x171 Pixel
  • accuracy: 1% measuered value
  • rate: < 45 frames/sec